“Energy Trade and the WTO: Implications for Renewable Energy and the OPEC Cartel” (with Elena Cima), JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW, Georgetown University Law Center, published by OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, Volume 16 (3), September 2013, ISSN 1369-3034, pp. 707-740. Social Science Citation Index – SSCI – Impact factor: 0.985 ; 5-Yr impact factor: 0.837.
It is true that, recently, the WTO has shown an increasingly open approach towards environmental issues. However, free trade is still the backbone of the Organization and trade liberalization its main goal. This explains why the WTO Panel and Appellate Body are still reluctant to justify measures adopted to support the renewable energy sector that may conflict with international trade law.
Different might be the case with fossil fuels, the main competitor of renewable energy. OPEC exploits several strategies to control oil prices, which, at least in theory, clash with international trade rules. However, whatever the reason, such practices have never been challenged in front of the WTO. The way WTO provisions are interpreted and applied by the Panel and the Appellate Body when environmental concerns are involved can be used as a starting point to forecast a hypothetical judgment in case OPEC’s practices were eventually challenged.
Keywords: WTO, International law, Trade, OPEC, Energy, Environment, Subsidies
JEL Classification: K33, K32, F02, H23, L95, L50, L55, N70, N75, Q20, Q28, Q30, Q32, Q38, Q40, Q48
Accepted Paper Series